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Department of Biochemistry

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Publications of the Christen Group

Beyer, C, Christen, P., Jelesarov, I. & Fröhlich, J. Experimental system for real-time assessment of potential changes in protein conformation induced by electromagnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics 34, 419-428 (2013). 

Fernandez, FJ., de Vries, D., Pena-Soler, E., Coll, M., Christen, P., Gehring, H. & Vega, MC. Structure and mechanism of a cysteine sulfinate desulfinase engineered on the aspartate aminotransferase scaffold. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1824, 339-349 (2012).

Jacobson, T., Navarrete, C., Sharma, SK., Sideri, TC., Ibstedt, S., Priya, S., Grant, CM., Christen, P., Goloubinoff, P. & Tamas, MJ. Arsenite interferes with protein folding and triggers formation of protein aggregates in yeast. J Cell Sci 125, 5073-5083 (2012).

Sharma, SK., Goloubinoff, P. & Christen, P. Non-native proteins as newly-identified targets of heavy metals and metalloids. In: Cellular Effects of Heavy Metal Ions. Banfalvi, G. (Ed.), Springer, Heidelberg, p. 263-274 (2011).

Wu, F., Christen, P. & Gehring, H. A novel approach to inhibit intracellular vitamin B6-dependent enzymes: proof of principle with human and plasmodium ornithine decarboxylase and human histidine decarboxylase. FASEB J. 25, 2109-2122 (2011).

Burkhart, V.,Siegenthaler, RK., Blasius, E., Vandenbroeck, K., Alloza, I., Fingberg, W., Schloot, NC., Christen, P. & Kolb, H. High affinity binding of hydrophobic and autoantigenic regions of proinsulin to the 70kDa chaperone DnaK. BMC Biochem. 11(1):44 (2010). 

Sharma, SK., de los Rios, P., Christen, P., Lustig, A. & Goloubinoff, P. The kinetic parameters and energy costs of the Hsp 70 chaperone as a polypeptide unfoldase. Nat Chem Biol. 6, 914-920 (2010).

Kochhar, S., Mouratou, B. & Christen, P. Amino acid analysis by precolumn derivatization with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl-5-L-alanine amide (Marfey reagent). In: The Protein Protocols Handbook, 3rd ed., Walker, JM: (Ed.), Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 567-572 (2009).

Scocchi, M., Lüthy, C., Decarli, P., Mignogna, G., Christen, P. & Gennaro, R. The proline-rich antibacterial peptide Bac7 binds to and inhibits in vitro the molecular chaperone DnaK. Int J Pept Res Ther 15, 147-155 (2009). 

Sharma, SK., Christen, P. & Goloubinoff, P. Disaggregating chaperones: an unfolding story. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 10, 432-446 (2009).

Sharma, SK., Goloubinoff,  P. & Christen P. Heavy metal ions are potent inhibitors of protein folding. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 372, 341-345 (2008).

Vacca, RA., Giannattasio, S., Capitani, G., Marra, E.  & Christen, P. Molecular evolution of B6 enzymes: Binding of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and Lys41Arg substitution turn ribonuclease A into a model B6 protoenzyme. BMC Biochem. 9, 17 (2008). 

Golinelli-Pimpaneau, B., Luthi, C. & Christen, P. Structural Basis for D-Amino Acid Transamination by the Pyridoxal 5'-Phosphate-dependent Catalytic Antibody 15A9. J. Biol. Chem. 281, 23969-77 (2006).

Siegenthaler, R.K. & Christen, P. Tuning of DnaK chaperone action by non-native-protein sensor DnaJ and thermosensor GrpE. J. Biol. Chem. 281, 34448-34456 (2006).

Christen, P. und Jaussi, R. Biochemie (Eine Einführung mit 40 Lerneinheiten). Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer (2005).Grimshaw, J. P., Siegenthaler, R. K., Zuger, S., Schonfeld, H. J., Z'Graggen B, R. & Christen, P. The heat-sensitive Escherichia coli grpE280 phenotype: impaired interaction of GrpE(G122D) with DnaK. J. Mol. Biol. 353, 888-96 (2005).        

Siegenthaler, R. K. & Christen, P. The importance of having thermosensor control in the DnaK chaperone system. J. Biol. Chem. 280, 14395-401 (2005).        

Fernandez, F. J., Vega, M. C., Lehmann, F., Sandmeier, E., Gehring, H., Christen, P. & Wilmanns, M. Structural studies of the catalytic reaction pathway of a hyperthermophilic histidinol-phosphate aminotransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 279, 21478-88 (2004).        

Han, W. & Christen, P. cis-Effect of DnaJ on DnaK in ternary complexes with chimeric DnaK/DnaJ-binding peptides. FEBS Lett. 563, 146-50 (2004).       

 Koller, M. F., Mohajeri, M. H., Huber, M., Wollmer, M. A., Roth Z'graggen B, V., Sandmeier, E., Moritz, E., Tracy, J., Nitsch, R. M. & Christen, P. Active immunization of mice with an abeta-hsp70 vaccine. Neurodegener Dis 1, 20-8 (2004).        

Siegenthaler, R. K., Grimshaw, J. P. & Christen, P. Immediate response of the DnaK molecular chaperone system to heat shock. FEBS Lett. 562, 105-10 (2004).        

Bischofberger, P., Han, W., Feifel, B., Schonfeld, H. J. & Christen, P. D-Peptides as inhibitors of the DnaK/DnaJ/GrpE chaperone system. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 19044-7 (2003).        

Grimshaw, J. P., Jelesarov, I., Siegenthaler, R. K. & Christen, P. Thermosensor action of GrpE. The DnaK chaperone system at heat shock temperatures. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 19048-53 (2003).       

 Han, W. & Christen, P. Mechanism of the targeting action of DnaJ in the DnaK molecular chaperone system. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 19038-43 (2003).        

Han, W. & Christen, P. Interdomain communication in the molecular chaperone DnaK. Biochem. J. 369, 627-34 (2003).       

Gramatikova, S., Mouratou, B., Stetefeld, J., Mehta, P. K. & Christen, P. Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent catalytic antibodies. J. Immunol Methods 269, 99-110 (2002).        

Koller, M. F., Baici, A., Huber, M. & Christen, P. Detection of a very rapid first phase in complex formation of DnaK and peptide substrate. FEBS Lett. 520, 25-9 (2002).        

Koller, M. F., Grau, T. & Christen, P. Induction of antibodies against murine full-length prion protein in wild-type mice. J. Neuroimmunol 132, 113-6 (2002).        

Christen, P. & Mehta, P. K. From cofactor to enzymes. The molecular evolution of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes. Chem. Rec. 1, 436-47 (2001).        

Grimshaw, J. P., Jelesarov, I., Schonfeld, H. J. & Christen, P. Reversible thermal transition in GrpE, the nucleotide exchange factor of the DnaK heat-shock system. J. Biol. Chem. 276, 6098-104 (2001).        

Han, W. & Christen, P. Mutations in the interdomain linker region of DnaK abolish the chaperone action of the DnaK/DnaJ/GrpE system. FEBS Lett. 497, 55-8 (2001).        

Gramatikova, S. I. & Christen, P. Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent catalytic antibodies. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 83, 183-90; discussion 190-3, 297-313 (2000).        

Kasper, P., Christen, P. & Gehring, H. Empirical calculation of the relative free energies of peptide binding to the molecular chaperone DnaK. Proteins 40, 185-92 (2000).       

 Kochhar, S., Mouratou, B. & Christen, P. Amino acid analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography after derivatization with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl-5-L-alanine amide (Marfey's reagent). Methods Mol. Biol. 159, 49-54 (2000).           

Manunta, M., Kunz, B., Sandmeier, E., Christen, P. & Schindler, H. Reported channel formation by prion protein fragment 106-126 in planar lipid bilayers cannot be reproduced. FEBS Lett. 474, 255-6 (2000).        

Mehta, P. K. & Christen, P. The molecular evolution of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes. Adv. Enzymol. Relat. Areas Mol. Biol. 74, 129-84 (2000).        

Mouratou, B., Gramatikova, S., Kunz, B. & Christen, P. Amino acid sequences and hapten binding of catalytic and noncatalytic antibodies against N(alpha)-(5'-phosphopyridoxyl)-L-lysine. Mol. Immunol. 37, 633-40 (2000).        

Salzmann, D., Christen, P., Mehta, P. K. & Sandmeier, E. Rates of evolution of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 270, 576-80 (2000).        

Widmann, M. & Christen, P. Comparison of folding rates of homologous prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 18619-22 (2000).       

Graber, R., Kasper, P., Malashkevich, V. N., Strop, P., Gehring, H., Jansonius, J. N. & Christen, P. Conversion of aspartate aminotransferase into an L-aspartate beta-decarboxylase by a triple active-site mutation. J. Biol. Chem. 274, 31203-8 (1999).        

Kunz, B., Sandmeier, E. & Christen, P. Reply by the authors. FEBS Lett. 460, 561 (1999).        

Mahon, M. M., Graber, R., Christen, P. & Malthouse, J. P. The aspartate aminotransferase-catalysed exchange of the alpha-protons of aspartate and glutamate: the effects of the R386A and R292V mutations on this exchange reaction. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1434, 191-201 (1999).        

Mehta, P. K., Argos, P., Barbour, A. D. & Christen, P. Recognizing very distant sequence relationships among proteins by family profile analysis. Proteins 35, 387-400 (1999).        

Mouratou, B., Kasper, P., Gehring, H. & Christen, P. Conversion of tyrosine phenol-lyase to dicarboxylic amino acid beta-lyase, an enzyme not found in nature. J. Biol. Chem. 274, 1320-5 (1999).        

Sandmeier, E., Hunziker, P., Kunz, B., Sack, R. & Christen, P. Spontaneous deamidation and isomerization of Asn108 in prion peptide 106-126 and in full-length prion protein. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 261, 578-83 (1999).        

Feifel, B., Schonfeld, H. J. & Christen, P. D-Peptide ligands for the co-chaperone DnaJ. J. Biol. Chem. 273, 11999-2002 (1998).        

Gisler, S. M., Pierpaoli, E. V. & Christen, P. Catapult mechanism renders the chaperone action of Hsp70 unidirectional. J. Mol. Biol. 279, 833-40 (1998).        

Mahon, M. M., Gramatikova, S. I., Christen, P., Fitzpatrick, T. B. & Malthouse, J. P. The pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent catalytic antibody 15A9: its efficiency and stereospecificity in catalysing the exchange of the alpha-protons of glycine. FEBS Lett. 427, 74-8 (1998).        

Pierpaoli, E. V., Gisler, S. M. & Christen, P. Sequence-specific rates of interaction of target peptides with the molecular chaperones DnaK and DnaJ. Biochemistry 37, 16741-8 (1998).        

Pierpaoli, E. V., Sandmeier, E., Schonfeld, H. J. & Christen, P. Control of the DnaK chaperone cycle by substoichiometric concentrations of the co-chaperones DnaJ and GrpE. J. Biol. Chem. 273, 6643-9 (1998).        

Tormay, P., Wilting, R., Lottspeich, F., Mehta, P. K., Christen, P. & Bock, A. Bacterial selenocysteine synthase--structural and functional properties. Eur. J. Biochem. 254, 655-61 (1998).    

Chen, M. & Christen, P. Removal of chromosomal DNA by Mg2+ in the lysis buffer: an improved lysis protocol for preparing Escherichia coli whole-cell lysates for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Anal. Biochem. 246, 263-4 (1997).   
   
Gramatikova, S. I. & Christen, P. Monoclonal antibodies against Nalpha-(5'-phosphopyridoxyl)-L-lysine. Screening and spectrum of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent activities toward amino acids. J. Biol. Chem. 272, 9779-84 (1997).   
   
Pierpaoli, E. V., Sandmeier, E., Baici, A., Schonfeld, H. J., Gisler, S. & Christen, P. The power stroke of the DnaK/DnaJ/GrpE molecular chaperone system. J. Mol. Biol. 269, 757-68 (1997).   
   
Vacca, R. A., Giannattasio, S., Graber, R., Sandmeier, E., Marra, E. & Christen, P. Active-site Arg --> Lys substitutions alter reaction and substrate specificity of aspartate aminotransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 272, 21932-7 (1997).   
   
Christen, P., Kasper, P., Gehring, H. & Sterk, M. Stereochemical constraint in the evolution of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes. A hypothesis. FEBS Lett. 389, 12-4 (1996).   
   
Feifel, B., Sandmeier, E., Schonfeld, H. J. & Christen, P. Potassium ions and the molecular-chaperone activity of DnaK. Eur. J. Biochem. 237, 318-21 (1996).   
   
Gramatikova, S. I. & Christen, P. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent catalytic antibody. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 30583-6 (1996).   
   
Kasper, P., Sterk, M., Christen, P. & Gehring, H. Molecular-dynamics simulation of domain movements in aspartate aminotransferase. Eur. J. Biochem. 240, 751-5 (1996).   
   
Markovic-Housley, Z., Schirmer, T., Hohenester, E., Khomutov, A. R., Khomutov, R. M., Karpeisky, M. Y., Sandmeier, E., Christen, P. & Jansonius, J. N. Crystal structures and solution studies of oxime adducts of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. Eur. J. Biochem. 236, 1025-32 (1996).   
   
Birolo, L., Sandmeier, E., Christen, P. & John, R. A. The roles of Tyr70 and Tyr225 in aspartate aminotransferase assessed by analysing the effects of mutations on the multiple reactions of the substrate analogue serine o-sulphate. Eur. J. Biochem. 232, 859-64 (1995).   
   
Graber, R., Kasper, P., Malashkevich, V. N., Sandmeier, E., Berger, P., Gehring, H., Jansonius, J. N. & Christen, P. Changing the reaction specificity of a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme. Eur. J. Biochem. 232, 686-90 (1995).   
   
Malashkevich, V. N., Jager, J., Ziak, M., Sauder, U., Gehring, H., Christen, P. & Jansonius, J. N. Structural basis for the catalytic activity of aspartate aminotransferase K258H lacking the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-binding lysine residue. Biochemistry 34, 405-14 (1995).   
   
Vacca, R. A., Christen, P., Malashkevich, V. N., Jansonius, J. N. & Sandmeier, E. Substitution of apolar residues in the active site of aspartate aminotransferase by histidine. Effects on reaction and substrate specificity. Eur. J. Biochem. 227, 481-7 (1995).   
   
Widmann, M. & Christen, P. Differential effects of molecular chaperones on refolding of homologous proteins. FEBS Lett. 377, 481-4 (1995).   
   
Alexander, F. W., Sandmeier, E., Mehta, P. K. & Christen, P. Evolutionary relationships among pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes. Regio-specific alpha, beta and gamma families. Eur. J. Biochem. 219, 953-60 (1994).   
   
Mehta, P. K. & Christen, P. Homology of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase, 8-amino-7-oxononanoate synthase, 2-amino-6-caprolactam racemase, 2,2-dialkylglycine decarboxylase, glutamate-1-semialdehyde 2,1-aminomutase and isopenicillin-N-epimerase with aminotransferases. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 198, 138-43 (1994).   
   
Pan, P., Jakob, C. A., Sandmeier, E., Christen, P. & Gehring, H. Modulation of the activity of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase H352C by the redox state of the engineered interdomain disulfide bond. J. Biol. Chem. 269, 25432-6 (1994).   
   
Pan, P., Jaussi, R., Gehring, H., Giannattasio, S. & Christen, P. Shift in pH-rate profile and enhanced discrimination between dicarboxylic and aromatic substrates in mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase Y70H. Biochemistry 33, 2757-60 (1994).   
   
Sandmeier, E., Hale, T. I. & Christen, P. Multiple evolutionary origin of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent amino acid decarboxylases. Eur. J. Biochem. 221, 997-1002 (1994).   
   
Schmid, D., Baici, A., Gehring, H. & Christen, P. Kinetics of molecular chaperone action. Science 263, 971-3 (1994).   
   
Gupta, S., Hollenstein, R., Kochhar, S. & Christen, P. Paracatalytic self-inactivation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase. Structure of the crosslink formed at the active site. Eur. J. Biochem. 214, 515-9 (1993).   
   
Hartmann, C. M., Gehring, H. & Christen, P. The mature form of imported mitochondrial proteins undergoes conformational changes upon binding to isolated mitochondria. Eur. J. Biochem. 218, 905-10 (1993).   
   
Mehta, P. K. & Christen, P. A comment on: 'Homology of the NifS family of proteins to a new class of pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzymes', by Christos Ouzounis and Chris Sander (1993) FEBS Lett. 322, 159-164. FEBS Lett. 330, 241-2 (1993).   
   
Mehta, P. K. & Christen, P. Homology of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent aminotransferases with the cobC (cobalamin synthesis), nifS (nitrogen fixation), pabC (p-aminobenzoate synthesis) and malY (abolishing endogenous induction of the maltose system) gene products. Eur. J. Biochem. 211, 373-6 (1993).   
   
Mehta, P. K., Hale, T. I. & Christen, P. Aminotransferases: demonstration of homology and division into evolutionary subgroups. Eur. J. Biochem. 214, 549-61 (1993).   
   
Pan, P., Schinzel, R., Palm, D. & Christen, P. Reaction of imidazole-citrate-deformed glycogen phosphorylase with amino acids. Eur. J. Biochem. 215, 761-6 (1993).   
   
Ziak, M., Jager, J., Malashkevich, V. N., Gehring, H., Jaussi, R., Jansonius, J. N. & Christen, P. Mutant aspartate aminotransferase (K258H) without pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-binding lysine residue. Structural and catalytic properties. Eur. J. Biochem. 211, 475-84 (1993).   
   
Kochhar, S. & Christen, P. Mechanism of racemization of amino acids by aspartate aminotransferase. Eur. J. Biochem. 203, 563-9 (1992).   
   
Schmid, D., Jaussi, R. & Christen, P. Precursor of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase synthesized in Escherichia coli is complexed with heat-shock protein DnaK. Eur. J. Biochem. 208, 699-704 (1992).   
   
Hartmann, C., Christen, P. & Jaussi, R. Mitochondrial protein charge. Nature 352, 762-3 (1991).   
   
Hartmann, C. M., Lindenmann, J. M., Christen, P. & Jaussi, R. The precursor of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase is imported into mitochondria faster than the homologous cytosolic isoenzyme with the same presequence attached. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 174, 1232-8 (1991).   
   
Picot, D., Sandmeier, E., Thaller, C., Vincent, M. G., Christen, P. & Jansonius, J. N. The open/closed conformational equilibrium of aspartate aminotransferase. Studies in the crystalline state and with a fluorescent probe in solution. Eur. J. Biochem. 196, 329-41 (1991).   
   
Christen, P., Jaussi, R., Juretic, N., Mehta, P. K., Hale, T. I. & Ziak, M. Evolutionary and biosynthetic aspects of aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes and other aminotransferases. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 585, 331-8 (1990).   
   
Juretic, N., Mattes, U., Ziak, M., Christen, P. & Jaussi, R. Structure of the genes of two homologous intracellularly heterotopic isoenzymes. Cytosolic and mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase of chicken. Eur. J. Biochem. 192, 119-26 (1990).

Ziak, M., Jaussi, R., Gehring, H. & Christen, P. Aspartate aminotransferase with the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-binding lysine residue replaced by histidine retains partial catalytic competence. Eur. J. Biochem. 187, 329-33 (1990).  

Kochhar, S. & Christen, P. Amino acid analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography after derivatization with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl-5-L-alanine amide. Anal. Biochem. 178, 17–21 (1989).   
   
Kochhar, S., Mehta, P. K. & Christen, P. Assay for aliphatic amino acid decarboxylases by high-performance liquid chromatography. Anal. Biochem. 179, 182–5 (1989).   
   
Mattes, U., Jaussi, R., Ziak, M., Juretic, N., Lindenmann, J. M. & Christen, P. Structure of cDNA of cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase of chicken and its expression in E. coli. Biochimie 71, 411–6 (1989).   
   
Mehta, P. K., Hale, T. I. & Christen, P. Evolutionary relationships among aminotransferases. Tyrosine aminotransferase, histidinol-phosphate aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase are homologous proteins. Eur. J. Biochem. 186, 249–53 (1989).   
   
Fluckiger, J. & Christen, P. Degradation of the precursor of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase in chicken embryo fibroblasts. J. Biol. Chem. 263, 4131–8 (1988).   
   
Kochhar, S. & Christen, P. The enantiomeric error frequency of aspartate aminotransferase. Eur. J. Biochem. 175, 433–8 (1988).   
   
Jaussi, R., Behra, R., Giannattasio, S., Flura, T. & Christen, P. Expression of cDNAs encoding the precursor and the mature form of chicken mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase in Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 262, 12434–7 (1987).   
   
Juretic, N., Jaussi, R., Mattes, U. & Christen, P. Genes of nuclear encoded mitochondrial proteins: evidence for a variant of the 3' splice-site consensus sequence. Nucleic. Acids. Res. 15, 10083–6 (1987).   
   
Kochhar, S., Finlayson, W. L., Kirsch, J. F. & Christen, P. The stereospecific labilization of the C-4' pro-S hydrogen of pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate is abolished in (Lys258----Ala) aspartate aminotransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 262, 11446–8 (1987).   
   
Tobler, H. P., Gehring, H. & Christen, P. Stereospecific labilization of the C-4' pro-S hydrogen of pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate in aspartate aminotransferase. Activators and inhibitors. J. Biol. Chem. 262, 8985–9 (1987).   
   
Behra, R. & Christen, P. In vitro import into mitochondria of the precursor of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 261, 257–63 (1986).   
   
Tobler, H. P., Christen, P. & Gehring, H. Stereospecific labilization of the C-4' pro-S hydrogen of pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate in aspartate aminotransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 261, 7105–8 (1986).   
   
Jaussi, R., Cotton, B., Juretic, N., Christen, P. & Schumperli, D. The primary structure of the precursor of chicken mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA. J. Biol. Chem. 260, 16060–3 (1985).   
   
Pfister, K., Sandmeier, E., Berchtold, W. & Christen, P. Conformational changes in aspartate aminotransferase. Effect of active site ligands on peptide hydrogen-deuterium exchange. J. Biol. Chem. 260, 11414–21 (1985).   
   
Christen, P., Gehring, H., Sandmeier, E., Kirsten, H., Pfister, K. & Jansonius, J. N. Correlation of structure and catalysis by aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 12, 427–30 (1984).   
   
Christen, P., Jaussi, R., Sonderegger, P., Gehring, H., Graf-Hausner, U., Behra, R., Fluckiger, J. & Skoda, R. C. Biosynthesis of aspartate aminotransferases. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 144B, 17–25 (1984).   
   
Gehring, H., Sandmeier, E., Kirsten, H., Carrassi, R., Christen, P. & Jansonius, J. N. Aspartate aminotransferase: studies on conformational adaptions and 3H-transfer during transamination. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 144B, 223–31 (1984).   
   
Jansonius, J. N., Eichele, G., Ford, G. C., Kirsch, J. F., Picot, D., Thaller, C., Vincent, M. G., Gehring, H. & Christen, P. Three-dimensional structure of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase and some functional derivatives: implications for its mode of action. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 12, 424–7 (1984).   
   
Jansonius, J. N., Eichele, G., Ford, G. C., Kirsch, J. F., Picot, D., Thaller, C., Vincent, M. G., Gehring, H. & Christen, P. Crystallographic studies on the mechanism of action of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 144B, 195–203 (1984).   
   
Jaussi, R., Fluckiger, J., Behra, R. & Christen, P. Inhibitors of maturation and degradation of the precursor of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 144B, 27–32 (1984).   
   
Kirsch, J. F., Eichele, G., Ford, G. C., Vincent, M. G., Jansonius, J. N., Gehring, H. & Christen, P. Mechanism of action of aspartate aminotransferase proposed on the basis of its spatial structure. J. Mol. Biol. 174, 497–525 (1984).

Pan, P., Jakob, C.A., Sandmeier, E., Christen, P. & Gehring, H. Modulation of the activity of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase H352C by the redox state of the engineered interdomain disfulfide bond. J. Biol. Chem. 269, 25432–25436 (1994).
   
Sandmeier, E. & Christen, P. Conformational changes in mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase detected by a covalently attached fluorescent probe. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 144B, 117–24 (1984).   
   
Vincent, M. G., Picot, D., Eichele, G., Jansonius, J. N., Kirsten, H. & Christen, P. Linear dichroism measurements on single crystals of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 144B, 233–43 (1984).   
   
Gehring, H. & Christen, P. Isolation of sulfhydryl peptides alkylated with N-ethylmaleimide by diagonal electrophoresis. Methods Enzymol. 91, 392–6 (1983).   
   
Graf-Hausner, U., Wilson, K. J. & Christen, P. The covalent structure of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase from chicken. Identification of segments of the polypeptide chain invariant specifically in the mitochondrial isoenzyme. J. Biol. Chem. 258, 8813–26 (1983).   
   
Kirsten, H. & Christen, P. Catalytic activity of non-cross-linked microcrystals of aspartate aminotransferase in poly(ethylene glycol). Biochem. J. 211, 427–34 (1983).   
   
Kirsten, H., Gehring, H. & Christen, P. Crystalline aspartate aminotransferase: lattice-induced functional asymmetry of the two subunits. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80, 1807–10 (1983).   
   
Skoda, R. C., Jaussi, R. & Christen, P. Vinblastine inhibits the maturation of the precursor of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. Vincristine and six other cytoskeleton inhibitors do not show this effect. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 115, 144–52 (1983).   
   
Behra, R., Christen, P., Spycher, M. A. & Sonderegger, P. Subcellular distribution of aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes in chicken heart: a quantitative study. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., B 71, 187–91 (1982).   
   
Christen, P. & Gehring, H. Detection of ligand-induced and syncatalytic conformational changes of enzymes by differential chemical modification. Methods. Biochem. Anal. 28, 151–74 (1982).   
   
Jaussi, R., Sonderegger, P., Fluckiger, J. & Christen, P. Biosynthesis and topogenesis of aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes in chicken embryo fibroblasts. The precursor of the mitochondrial isoenzyme is either imported into mitochondria or degraded in the cytosol. J. Biol. Chem. 257, 13334–40 (1982).   
   
Sandmeier, E. & Christen, P. Chemical modification of a functional arginyl residue (Arg 292) of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. Identification as the binding site for the distal carboxylate group of the substrate. J. Biol. Chem. 257, 6745–50 (1982).   
   
Sonderegger, P., Jaussi, R., Christen, P. & Gehring, H. Biosynthesis of aspartate aminotransferases. Both the higher molecular weight precursor of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase and the cytosolic isoenzyme are synthesized on free polysomes. J. Biol. Chem. 257, 3339–45 (1982).   
   
Sonderegger, P., Jaussi, R., Gehring, H., Brunschweiler, K. & Christen, P. Peptide mapping of protein bands from polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis by chemical cleavage in gel pieces and re-electrophoresis. Anal. Biochem. 122, 298–301 (1982).   
   
Behra, R., Christen, P. & Sonderegger, P. Independent quantitation of the mitochondrial and the cytosolic isoenzyme of aspartate aminotransferase in chicken tissues by radioimmunoassays. J. Biol. Chem. 256, 3381–4 (1981).   
   
Cogoli-Greuter, M. & Christen, P. Formation of hydroxypyruvaldehyde phosphate in human erythrocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 256, 5708–11 (1981).   
   
Wacker, H., Jaussi, R., Sonderegger, P., Dokow, M., Ghersa, P., Hauri, H. P., Christen, P. & Semenza, G. Cell-free synthesis of the one-chain precursor of a major intrinsic protein complex of the small-intestinal brush border membrane (pro-sucrase-isomaltase). FEBS Lett. 136, 329–32 (1981).

Christen, P. & Gasser, A. Visual detection of fructose-1,6-P2 aldolase after electrophoresis by its oxidative paracatalytic reaction. Anal. Biochem. 109, 270–2 (1980).   
   
Christen, P. & Gasser, A. Production of glycolate by oxidation of the 1,2-dihydroxyethyl-thamin-diphosphate intermediate of transketolase with hexacyanoferrate(III) or H2O2. Eur. J. Biochem. 107, 73–7 (1980).   
   
Gehring, H. & Christen, P. A diagonal procedure for isolating sulfhydryl peptides alkylated with N-ethylmaleimide. Anal. Biochem. 107, 358–61 (1980).   
   
Sandmeier, E. & Christen, P. Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase 27/32-410. Partially active enzyme derivative produced by limited proteolytic cleavage of native enzyme. J. Biol. Chem. 255, 10284–9 (1980).   
   
Sonderegger, P., Jaussi, R. & Christen, P. Cell-free synthesis of a putative precursor of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase with higher molecular weight. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 94, 1256–60 (1980).   
   
Cogoli-Greuter, M., Hausner, U. & Christen, P. Irreversible inactivation of pyruvate decarboxylase in the presence of substrate and an oxidant. An example of paracatalytic enzyme inactivation. Eur. J. Biochem. 100, 295–300 (1979).   
   
Eichele, G., Ford, G. C., Glor, M., Jansonius, J. N., Mavrides, C. & Christen, P. The three-dimensional structure of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase at 4.5 A resolution. J. Mol. Biol. 133, 161–80 (1979).   
   
Lubini, D. G. & Christen, P. Paracatalytic modification of aldolase: a side reaction of the catalytic cycle resulting in irreversible blocking of two active-site lysyl residues. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 76, 2527–31 (1979).   
   
Eichele, G., Karabelnik, D., Halonbrenner, R., Jansonius, J. N. & Christen, P. Catalytic activity in crystals of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase as detected by microspectrophotometry. J. Biol. Chem. 253, 5239–42 (1978).   
   
Gehring, H. & Christen, P. Syncatalytic conformational changes in mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferases. Evidence from modification and demodification of Cys 166 in the enzyme from chicken and pig. J. Biol. Chem. 253, 3158–63 (1978).   
   
Mavrides, C. & Christen, P. Mitochondrial and cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase from chicken: activity toward aromatic amino acids. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 85, 769–73 (1978).   
   
Pfister, K., Kagi, J. H. & Christen, P. Syncatalytic conformational changes in aspartate aminotransferase determined by hydrogen-deuterium exchange. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 75, 145–8 (1978).   
   
Schlegel, H. & Christen, P. Cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase. Studies on subunit interactions with the apo/holo hybrid dimer. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 532, 6–16 (1978).   
   
Sonderegger, P. & Christen, P. Comparison of the evolution rates of cytosolic and mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. Nature 275, 157–9 (1978).   
   
Birchmeier, W. & Christen, P. Syncatalytic enzyme modification: characteristic features and differentiation from affinity labeling. Methods Enzymol. 46, 41–8 (1977).   
   
Christen, P. Paracatalytic enzyme modification by oxidation of enzyme-substrate carbanion intermediates. Methods Enzymol. 46, 48–54 (1977).   
   
Gehring, H., Christen, P., Eichele, G., Glor, M., Jansonius, J. N., Reimer, A. S., Smit, J. D. & Thaller, C. Isolation, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic data of aspartate aminotransferase from chicken heart mitochondria. J. Mol. Biol. 115, 97–101 (1977).   
   
Gehring, H., Rando, R. R. & Christen, P. Active-site labeling of aspartate aminotransferases by the beta,gamma-unsaturated amino acid vinylglycine. Biochemistry 16, 4832–6 (1977).   
   
Lubini, D., Healy, M. J. & Christen, P. Coupling of fructose-1,6-P2 to aminated agarose by Schiff base reduction. Affinity chromatography of yeast aldolase. Experientia 33, 709–11 (1977).   
   
Schlegel, H., Zaoralek, P. E. & Christen, P. Aspartate aminotransferase. Determination of the active site occupancy pattern indicates independent transamination of the two subunits. J. Biol. Chem. 252, 5835–8 (1977).   
   
Sonderegger, P., Gehring, H. & Christen, P. Interspecies comparison of cytosolic and mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferases. Evidence for a more conservative evolution of the mitochondrial isoenzyme. J. Biol. Chem. 252, 609–12 (1977).   
   
Christen, P., Cogoli-Greuter, M., Healy, M. J. & Lubini, D. Specific irreversible inhibition of enzymes concomitant to the oxidation of carbanionic enzyme-substrate intermediates by hexacyanoferrate (III). Eur. J. Biochem. 63, 223–31 (1976).   
   
Christen, P. & Gasser, A. Oxidation of the carbanion intermediate of transaldolase by hexacyanoferrate (III). J. Biol. Chem. 251, 4220–3 (1976).   
   
Gehring, H. & Christen, P. Syncatalytic sulfhydryl group modification in mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase from chicken and pig heart. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 63, 441–7 (1975).   
   
Gehring, H., Wilson, K. J. & Christen, P. Conspicuous degree of homology between the mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferases from chicken and pig heart. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 67, 73–8 (1975).   
   
Birchmeier, W. & Christen, P. The reaction of cytoplasmic aspartate aminotransferase with bromopyruvate. Syncatalytic modification simulates affinity labeling. J. Biol. Chem. 249, 6311–5 (1974).   
   
Christen, P., Anderson, T. K. & Healy, M. J. H2O2 oxidizes an aldolase dihydroxyacetone phosphate intermediate to hydroxymethylglyoxal phosphate. Experientia 30, 603–5 (1974).   
   
Pfister, K. & Christen, P. Bau und Funktion der Enzyme. Eine kurze Einfuhrung. Med. Labor 27, 143–52 (1974).   
   
Schlegel, H. & Christen, P. The apo-holo hybrid of cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase, preparation and studies on subunit interactions. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 61, 117–23 (1974).   
   
Wilson, K. J., Birchmeier, W. & Christen, P. The reactive sulfhydryl groups of cytoplasmic aspartate aminotransferase. Localization in the primary structure and spectral properties of their mixed disulfide derivatives with N-dansylcysteine. Eur. J. Biochem. 41, 471–7 (1974).   
   
Birchmeier, W., Wilson, K. J. & Christen, P. Cytoplasmic aspartate aminotransferase: syncatalytic sulfhydryl group modification. J. Biol. Chem. 248, 1751–9 (1973).   
   
Birchmeier, W., Zaoralek, P. E. & Christen, P. Reaction of cytoplasmic aspartate aminotransferase with tetranitromethane. Biochemistry 12, 2874–9 (1973).   
   
Healy, M. J. & Christen, P. Mechanistic probes for enzymatic reactions. Oxidation-reduction indicators as oxidants of intermediary carbanions (studies with aldolase, aspartate aminotransferase, pyruvate decarboxylase, and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase). Biochemistry 12, 35–41 (1973).   
   
Birchmeier, W., Wilson, K. J. & Christen, P. Syncatalytic modification of cytoplasmic aspartate aminotransferase: identification of a peptide containing the modified cysteinyl residue. FEBS Lett. 26, 113–6 (1972).   
   
Healy, M. J. & Christen, P. Reaction of the carbanionic aldolase-substrate intermediate with tetranitromethane. Identification of the products, hydroxypyruvaldehyde phosphate and D-5-ketofructose 1,6-diphosphate. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 7911–6 (1972).   
   
Birchmeier, W. & Christen, P. Chemical evidence for syncatalytic conformational changes in aspartate aminotransferase. FEBS Lett. 18, 209–213 (1971).   
   
Christen, P. Enzyme als molekulare Maschinen. Schweiz. Med. Wochenschr. 101, 657–66 (1971).   
   
Christen, P., Vallee, B. L. & Simpson, R. T. Sequential chemical modifications of tyrosyl residues in alkaline phosphatase of Escherichia coli. Biochemistry 10, 1377–84 (1971).   
   
Christen, P. Chemical approaches to intermediates of enzyme catalysis. Experientia 26, 337–47 (1970).   
   
Christen, P., Peacock, W. C., Christen, A. E. & Wacker, W. E. Urate oxidase in primates. Folia Primatol (Basel) 13, 35–9 (1970).   
   
Christen, P., Peacock, W. C., Christen, A. E. & Wacker, W. E. Urate oxidase in primate phylogenesis. Eur. J. Biochem. 12, 3–5 (1970).

Christen, P. & Riordan, J. F. A spectrophotometric determination of carbanions with tetranitromethane. Anal. Chim. Acta 51, 47–51 (1970).

Christen, P. & Riordan, J. F. Syncatalytic modification of a functional tyrosyl residue in aspartate aminotransferase. Biochemistry 9, 3025–34 (1970).   
   
Riordan, J. F. & Christen, P. Carbanion intermediates in the reaction of yeast and muscle aldolase. Biochemistry 8, 2381–6 (1969).   
   
Christen, P. & Riordan, J. F. Reaction of an aldolase-substrate intermediate with tetranitromethane. Biochemistry 7, 1531–8 (1968).   
   
Riordan, J. F. & Christen, P. Reaction of tetranitromethane with protein sulfhydryl groups. Inactivation of aldolase. Biochemistry 7, 1525–30 (1968).   
   
Rensing, U., Schmid, A., Christen, P. & Leuthardt, F. Purification and some properties of aldolase-isoenzymes from bovine brain and muscle. Hoppe Seylers Z. Physiol. Chem. 348, 1001–4 (1967).   
   
Christen, P., Rensing, U., Schmid, A. & Leuthardt, F. Multiple Formen der Aldolase in Organextrakten der Ratte. Helv. Chim. Acta 49, 1872–5 (1966).

Schmid, A., Christen, P. & Leuthardt, F. Über die Reaktion der Muskel- und Leberaldolase mit "Dansylchlorid" und Acetylimidazol. Helv. Chim. Acta 49, 231–287 (1966).   

Christen, P., Goschke, H., Leuthardt, F. & Schmid, A. Über die Aldolase der Kaninchenleber: Molekulargewicht, Dissoziation in Untereinheiten. Helv. Chim. Acta 48, 1050–6 (1965).   
   
Christen, P., Leuthardt, F. & Schmid, A. Inaktivierung der Kaninchenmuskel- und Leberaldolase in 4M Harnstofflösung. Helv. Chim. Acta 48, 1546–55 (1965).

Christen P. & Siegenthaler W. Saluretika und Kohlenhydratstoffwechsel. Praxis 53, 152–156 (1964).